Judetul Salaj - Zalau

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Zalau

Municipiul Zalau, resedinta judetului Salaj, este situat in zona centrala a judetului, in bazinul hidrografic al raului Zalau, la contactul depresiunii cu acelasi nume si Culmea Mesesului. Cu o suprafata totala de 90,09 km2, teritoriul aministrativ al municipiului include si localitatea Stana, asezare situata la sud-est de Meses, in bazinul hidrografic al Agrijului.

Descoperirile arheologice de pe teritoriul municipiului Zalau au pus in evidenta dovezi ale existenţei umane in aceste locuri inca din neolitic, respectiv cu cca. 6500 de ani in urma. Monedele dacice descoperite in perimetrele arheologice din zona centrala a municipiului, de pe Valea Mitii si din vestul orasului, la care se adauga importante elemente apartinatoare culturii romane, atesta continuitatea locuirii dacice in acest areal si dezvoltarea unor relatii de ordin economic cu orasul Porolissum. Primele mentiuni scrise cu privire la existenta localitatii sunt consemnate in lucrarea lui Anonymus "Gesta Hungarorum". Mai tarziu, in anul 1220 Zalaul este consemnat sub denumirea de villa Ziloc, de Zylac in 1246, Zylah in 1282, Zyloh si opidum Zylah in 1318, Zila in 1601, Zilahu in 1808, Szilaj - Sszilagy in 1839, Szilaju in 1850 si Zilah - Walthenberg - Zalau in 1854. Dupa navalirile tatare si pustiirea orasului din anul 1241, Zalaul intra din anul 1246 in administrarea episcopatului catolic de la Oradea si este mentinut sub aceasta administratie pana in anul 1542, cand intra in componenta Principatului Transilvania. Sunt importante a consemna cateva date insemnate din istoria medievala a Zalaului, care si-au pus amprenta asupra dezvoltarii economice a orasului. Astfel, in anul 1473, regele Ungariei Matei Corvin, declara Zalaul oras-targ si i-a conferit o serie de avantaje comerciale. Alte praguri importante in dezvoltarea localitatii se inregistreaza in anul 1571, sub domnia principelui Stefan Bathory, in anul 1600 sub domnia lui Mihai Viteazul, iar dupa anexarea Transilvaniei de Imperiului Habsburgic, orasul cunoaste o decadere economica pe fundalul unei infuzii a produselor de provenienta apuseana, in detrimentul celor autohtone.

Dupa anul 1918 se inregistreaza o evolutie economica ascendenta, ajungand in perioada socialista sa aiba o gama larga de ramuri industriale, industrii ce se mentin si in perioada actuala, cum sunt: industria metalurgica si a constructiilor de masini, industria de prelucrare a lemnului, industria prelucrarii cauciucului, industria alimentara, industria textila, etc. Dupa anul 1989, in peisajul economic al municipiului Zalau, si-au facut aparitia o multitudine de activitati din sectorul tertiar, cu capital privat, fapt care indica o evolutie economica sanatoasa, bazata pe cerere si oferta.

Cu evolutii fluctuante de-a lungul timpului, populatia municipiului Zalau numara la ultimul recensamant 62927 locuitori. Din punct de vedere etnic, conform datelor de la recensamantul populatiei din anul 2002, populatia avea urmatoarea structura: 80,9% romani, 17,5% maghiari, 1,4% rromi, 0,03% slovaci, 0,07% germani, 0,097% altii.

Municipiul Zalau, pe langa importanta sa economica, constituie si un puternic centru cultural, de invatamant, si nu in ultimul rand, un atractiv areal turistic. De curand, municipiul Zalau, pe langa renumele scolilor si liceelor existente, se poate mandri cu prezenta a doua colegii universitare acreditate.

Beneficiind de un cadru natural de exceptie, de pozitia sa de la poalele Mesesului si de un bogat fond turistic de origine antropica, municipiul Zalau este si un important centru turistic. Muzeul Judetean de Istorie, cu tezaure monetare si obiecte de patrimoniu apartinatoare culturii daco-romane, medievale si poulare, alaturi de Galeria de Arta "Ion Sima" sunt principalele obiective de mare atractie ale orasului. Zestrea de monumente si ansambluri de arhitectura completează potentialul atractiv al orasului cu obiective construite de exceptie. Dintre cele 24 de monumente si ansambluri de arhitectura catalogate in municipiul Zalau, amintim aici cateva dintre cele mai reprezentative, cum sunt: cladirea "Transilvania" (1895 - teatru orasenesc), cladirea primariei (1889- tribunal si sediu de prefectura), Biserica romano-catolica (1878), Biserica reformata ( 1904-1907), Biserica ortodoxa "Adormirea Maicii Domnului"(1930-1934), Protopopiatul ortodox (cladire de la sfarsitul secolului al XIX-lea), cladirea Muzeului Judetean de Istorie (cca. 1900 - casino al asociatiei mestesugarilor), scoala generala "Simion Barnutiu" (1895 - scoala de fete) si Colegiul National Silvania (1860 - colegiu reformat), elemente urbanistice de mare valoare pentru patrimoniul istoric si cultural al tarii. Este interesanta si lucrarea cunoscuta drept grupul statuar "Wesselenyi" (1902), opera renumitului sculptor Fadrusz Janos precum si bustul ridicat in memoria lui Simion Barnutiu, opera a sculptorului Romul Ladea.

Zalau

The county capital Zalau is situated in the central part of the county, in the hydrographic basin of river Zalau at the meeting point of the depression with the same name and the Peak of Meses. With a total surface of 90,09 square kms the administrative territory of the county capital includes the locality Stâna situated at south-east from Meses, in the hydrographic basin of Agrij.

The archeological discoveries of the county capital Zalau proved the existence of human settlers on these territories since the Neolithic Age, respectively since 6500 years ago. The Dacian coins discovered in the central part of the county capital in Mitii Valley and in the west of the city, plus the important elements of the Roman culture, testified the continuity of the Dacian settlements in this area, and the development of economical relations with the town Porolissum. The first written confirmation of the existence of the inhabitants is to be found in "Gesta Hungarorum" written by Anonymous. Later, in 1220 Zalau is referred to as Villa Ziloc, Zylac in 1246, Zylah in 1282, Zyloh and opidum Zylah in 1318, Zilain in 1601, Zilahu in 1808, Szilaj-Szilagy in 1839, Szilaju in 1850, and Zilah-Walthenberg-Zalau in 1854. After the Tatarian invasion and the burning of the city in 1241, in the year 1246 Zalau belonged from an administrative point of view to the catholic episcopacy from Oradea and remained like this until 1542 when it becomes part of the Transylvanian Principality. It is important to mention a few significant dates in the history of Zalau that influenced the economical development of the city. This way in 1473, the Hungarian king Mátyás declares Zalau a market-town, and conferres it a series of commercial privileges. Another important date in the development of the locality is 1571, under the reign of prince István Báthory, 1600 under the reign of Mihai Viteazul, and after the annexation of Transylvania to the Habsburg Empire the city goes through an economical decline based on the infusion of western products.

After 1918 an increasing economical development can be noticed, and in the socialist period, the city becomes to have a large number of industrial branches that still exist, such as car building and metal-working industry, industrial processing of wood, of gum, textile industry etc. After 1989 a series of tertiary activities appeared in Zalau, with private capital indicating a healthy economical development based on demand and offer.

The population of Zalau went through important evolutions throughout times, and at present the data indicated by the census are the following: 62.927 inhabitants. From an ethnical point of view according to the census in 2002 the population had the following structure: 80,90% Romanians, 17,50% Hungarians, 1,40% Roms, 0,07% Germans, 0,003% Jews etc.

Besides its economical importance, Zalau is a famous cultural, educational and touristic centre. Not long ago besides the important schools and high schools, two accredited University colleges were established.

Due to its exceptional natural environment at the laps of the Meses Mountains and its rich touristic basis of manmade origin, Zalau, the county capital is an important touristic centre. The local History Museum with monumental treasures and objects with patrimonial value belonging to the Roman-Dacian history, and a Gallery of art are the main attractions of the city. The monuments and architectural ensembles complete the attraction potential of the city with extraordinary buildings. The most important of the 24 monuments and architectural ensembles catalogued in county capital Zalau are: "Transilvania" (theatre in 1895), the city hall (court and seat of the prefects office in 1889), the roman-catholic church (1878), the reformed church (1904-1907), the orthodox church "Adormirea Maicii Domnului" (1930-1934), the orthodox deanery (built in late 19th century), the Historical Museum (built about 1900 - casino of the artisans fellowship), the primary school "Simion Barnutiu" ( girls` school in 1895) and the mathematics-physics high school (reformed college in 1860), all these being valuable urbanistic elements for the historical and cultural patrimony of the land. The famous statuary group "Wesselenyi" (1902) by Janos Fadrusz and the bust made in the honour of Simion Barnutiu by Romul Ladea is worth visiting as well.

Zilah

Zilah municipium, mely egyben Szilagy megye szekhelye is, a megye kozepso reszen, a Zilah folyo volgyeben, a Zilahi medence es a Meszes teto talalkozasanal fekszik. Teljes felulete 90,09 km2, kozigazgatasi teruletehez Felsokekesnyarlo (Stana) helyseg is hozzatartozik, amely a Meszestol delkeletre talalhato.

A Zilahon vegzett regeszeti kutatasok szerint a terulet mar a neolitikumban, azaz kb. 6500 evvel ezelott lakott volt. A varos kozpontjaban, a Mice patak volgyeben es a varos nyugati reszeben talalt dak penzermek egyreszt a videk folytonos lakottsagat bizonyitjak, masreszt pedig a Porolissummal valo gazdasagi jellegu kapcsolat letezeset. A helyseg elso emlitese Anonymus Gesta Hungarorumabol valo. 1220-ban villa Ziloc neven szerepel, kesobbi elnevezesei: 1246-ban Zylac, 1282-ben Zylah, 1318-ban, Zyloh es opidum Zylah, 1601-ben Zila, 1808-ban Zilahu, 1839-ben Szilaj - Sszilagy, 1850-ben Szilaju es vegul 1854-ben Zilah - Walthenberg - Zalau. Az 1241-es tatarjaras utan, amely a varos pusztulasat eredmenyezte, 1246-ban Zilah a nagyvaradi katolikus puspokseg kozigazgatasa ala kerult, 1542-tol pedig az Erdelyi fejedelemseghez tartozott. Zilah kozepkori fejlodeset jelentosen befolyasolta foldrajzi fekvese: itt haladt at az egyik fout, amely a Meszes-kapun keresztul osszekototte a kozepkori Erdelyt Magyarorszaggal. 1473-ban Matyas kiraly Zilahot varossa nyilvanitja, es kereskedelmi jellegu kivaltsagokat biztosit szamara. Jelentos kezmuipari kozpontta valt, a XVI-XVII. szazadban mar megjelentek a meszarosok, csizmadiak, fazekasok, timarok gubasok es mas mestersegek cehes szervezetei. Termekeiket foleg a varost kornyezo videken forgalmaztak. Erdely fejedelmeitol is kapott kulonbozo kivaltsagokat. Zilahot idegen seregek tobbszor is elpusztitottak: 1241-ben a tatarok, 1601-ben Basta zsoldosai, 1703-ban Rabutin racai perzseltek fel , de mindig ujraeledt, megorizven iparos-kereskedo jellegu mezovarosi voltat. Nagyobb fellendulest 1876 utan tapasztalunk, amikor varmegyekozpont lett.

1918 utan a gazdasag ujbol fejlodesnek indult, a szocializmus idoszakaban mar szamos iparaggal rendelkezett, es ezek jelenleg is mukodokepesek. Ilyenek peldaul a kohaszat, fafeldolgozas, gumifeldolgozas, elelmiszeripar, textilipar stb. 1989 utan Zilah gazdasagaban szamos uj, a magantokere alapozott tevekenyseg jelentkezett, es ez egeszseges, kereseten es kinalaton alapulo gazdasagi fejlodést eredmenyezett.

A folyamatos fejlodes eredmenyekeppen Zilah lakosainak szama megnott, az utolso, 2002-es nepszamlalasi adatok szerint 62.927 fo. Nemzetisegi osszetetelet tekintve 80,90%-ban romanok, 17,50%-ban magyarok, 1,40%-ban romak, 0,07%-ban nemetek, 0,003 %-ban zsidok es 0,07%-ban mas nemzetisegek lakjak.

Zilah nemcsak gazdasagi szempontbol jelentos varos, hanem fontos kulturalis es oktatasi kozpont is, ugyanakkor turisztikai vonzerovel is bir. Neves kozepiskolai mellett most mar ket akkreditalt foiskolaval is buszkelkedhet.

Szep tajainak, jo fekvesenek koszonhetoen Zilah varosa a turizmusban is erdekelt. A Megyei Torteneti Muzeumban megtekinthetok az oskor es romai kor es kozepkor emlekei, valamint gazdag neprajzi gyujtemenye. A "Ioan Sima" Muveszeti Galeria is szamot tarthat a turistak erdeklodesere, kulonosen szep az exotikus lepkegyujtemenye. Muemlekei es szep epuletei szinten hozzajarulnak a varos vonzerejehez. A huszonnegy szamon tartott emlekmu es epiteszeti muemlek kozul a legjelentosebbek a volt Casino epulete (1895), a polgarmesteri hivatal epulete (1889 - az egykori torvenyszek es varmegyehaza), a romai katolikus templom (1878), a reformatus templom (1904-1907), az ortodox templom (1930-1934), az ortodox esperesseg (XIX. szazad vegi epulet), a Megyei Torteneti Muzeum epulete (kb. 1900 - a volt Iparos Egylet szekhaza), a Simion Barnutiu Altalanos Iskola (1895 - volt leanyiskola), a Matematika-fizika Liceum (1860 - volt reformatus kollegium, ahova Ady is jart) valamint mas, a tortenelmi es kulturalis orokseghez tartozo muemlekek. Emlitesre melto meg a Fadrusz Janos szobraszmuvesz altal alkotott Wesselenyi szoborcsoport (1902), Ady Endre szobra - Balasko Nandor muve, es a Simion Barnutiu emlekere allitott mellszobor, Romul Ladea szobraszmuvesz alkotasa. Emlektabla orzi Zovanyi P. Gyorgy zilahi ref. pap (kesobb puspok) hazaban az 1714-ben itt megszallt XII. Károly sved kiraly emleket es tabla jeloli azt a hazat is ahol diakkoraban Ady Endre lakott. Zilahon szuletett Zilahi Kis Karoly (1838-1864), iro, irodalomkritikus, Szilagyi Istvan iro; a reformatus kollegiumban tanitott a termeszettudos es nyelvesz Gyarmati Samuel (1715-1830) es a nyelvesz Szabo T. Attila; itt tanult Ady, Biro Lajos es Iuliu Maniu.